Lawrence M. Witmer, PhD
Professor of Anatomy
Chang Professor of Paleontology

Dept. of Biomedical Sciences
Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
Life Science Building, Rm 123
Ohio University
Athens, Ohio 45701 USA

Email: witmerL@ohio.edu

 

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Common Language Summary
The Visible Interactive Ostrich.
This page presents our work on the 3D anatomical structure of the head and skull of the ostrich, Struthio camelus. These resources are outgrowths of our more technical work and are intended to serve as STEM educational aids for K-12 and undergraduate students, as well as for researchers. WitmerLab has been working on ostrich cephalic anatomy for many years, and work on this site draws from the efforts of many lab members, most recently William Porter, Cheyenne Romick, Ashley Morhardt, and Jason Bourke. CT scanning was done at both the OUµCT facility and O'Bleness Memorial Hospital. Segmentation of anatomical structures was done using Amira and Avizo, 3D PDFs were generated using Deep Exploration and Adobe Acrobat, and movies were made using QuickTime or Adobe Premiere. Featured specimens here include a two-month-old ostrich (OUVC 10519) that has been the focus of more recent efforts as well as an adult specimen (OUVC 10491) that was published in a 2008 Witmer & Ridgely article in the Anatomical Record.

 

 

Check out our other Visible Interactive Anatomy sites! 

3D PDFs Videos
3D PDFs allow anyone with even the free Acrobat Reader to interactively manipulate the 3D models that we generate with powerful software like Avizo. The skull and individual bones can be spun around, isolated, made transparent, hidden, etc. The files can even be saved to your local computer. We provide each 3D PDF in different resolutions and files sizes to match your interest and the power of your computer. View our mini-tutorial.
NOTE: Bugs in many browsers prevent them from running 3D PDFs in a browser window, so please save it to your system and then launch it.
 

3D PDF of the skull a two-month-old ostrich (Struthio camelus, OUVC 10519) with each bone as a separate colored object. The right side and left side can each be turned on and off or made transparent. Unpaired bones (e.g., basioccipital) are assigned to the right side.
• Download a 22 MB 3D PDF LARGE
• Download a 16 MB 3D PDF MEDIUM
• Download a 7 MB 3D PDF SMALL
• Download a 3.6 MB 3D PDF SMALLEST
 

3D PDF of the skull a two-month-old ostrich (Struthio camelus, OUVC 10519) with soft tissues such as the airway, paranasal air sinuses, brain endocast, cephalic vasculature, and endosseous labyrinth of the inner ear. The right side and left side can each be turned on and off or made transparent. Unpaired bones (e.g., basioccipital) are assigned to the right side.
• Download a 68 MB 3D PDF LARGEST
• Download a 40 MB 3D PDF LARGE
• Download a 23 MB 3D PDF MEDIUM
• Download a 13 MB 3D PDF SMALL
• Download a 6 MB 3D PDF SMALLER
• Download a 4 MB 3D PDF SMALLEST
 

3D PDF of the skull of Struthio camelus (OUVC 10491), revealing the brain endocast, nasal cavity and sinuses, and tympanic air sinuses. Rendered from CT scans using Amira and QuickTime by Ryan Ridgely.This movie derives from the 2008 Witmer & Ridgely article in the Anatomical Record.
• Download a 32 MB 3D PDF LARGE
• Download a 12 MB 3D PDF MEDIUM
• Download a 7 MB 3D PDF SMALL
• Download a labeled image

 

 
Labeled animation of head anatomy. Animation of the head and skull anatomy of a two-month-old ostrich (Struthio camelus, OUVC 10519), labeled to show the individual bones of the skull, as well as the anatomy of the airway, paranasal air sinuses, brain endocast, eyeball, cephalic vasculature, and endosseous labyrinth of the inner ear. The arteries and veins of the head were injected with a barium/latex medium, and then the head was microCT scanned at 45 µm and 90 µm voxel resolutions. The 3D visualization work was done in Avizo, CorelDraw, and Adobe Premiere by William Porter, Cheyenne Romick, Ashley Morhardt, and Jason Bourke.
• Download a 43 MB QuickTime version (HD: 1920x1080)
• Download a 25 MB QuickTime version (1280x720)
• Download a 20 MB QuickTime version (853x480)
• Download a 11 MB QuickTime version (640x360)
 
 

Adult skull with air sinuses and brain endocast (yaw). Skull of Struthio camelus (OUVC 10491), revealing the brain endocast, nasal cavity and sinuses, and tympanic air sinuses. Rendered from CT scans using Amira and QuickTime by Ryan Ridgely and labeled by Jason Bourke.This movie derives from the 2008 Witmer & Ridgely article in the Anatomical Record..
• Download an 18 MB QuickTime version (1218x882)
• Download a 12 MB QuickTime version (954x690)
• Download a 6 MB QuickTime version (610x442)

 
 

Adult skull with air sinuses and brain endocast (roll). Skull of Struthio camelus (OUVC 10491), revealing the brain endocast, nasal cavity and sinuses, and tympanic air sinuses. Rendered from CT scans using Amira and QuickTime by Ryan Ridgely and labeled by Jason Bourke. This movie derives from the 2008 Witmer & Ridgely article in the Anatomical Record..
• Download a 25 MB QuickTime version (1320x864)
• Download a 14 MB QuickTime version (964x632)
• Download an 8 MB QuickTime version (660x432)

 
 

Axial CT slices. Older movie made in 2008 depicting CT scan slices in the axial (transverse) plane of the head of Struthio camelus (OUVC 10491). The head was scanned at O'Bleness Memorial Hospital on a GE LightSpeed Ultra Multislice CT scanner. Rendered using Amira and QuickTime by Ryan Ridgely. This movie derives from the 2008 Witmer & Ridgely article in the Anatomical Record..
• Download a 4.2 MB QuickTime version (640x568)

 
 

Sagittal CT slices. Older movie made in 2008 depicting CT scan slices in the sagittal plane of the head of Struthio camelus (OUVC 10491). The head was scanned at O'Bleness Memorial Hospital on a GE LightSpeed Ultra Multislice CT scanner. Rendered using Amira and QuickTime by Ryan Ridgely. This movie derives from the 2008 Witmer & Ridgely article in the Anatomical Record..
• Download a 4.0 MB QuickTime version (944x460)

 

 

Horizontal CT slices. Older movie made in 2008 depicting CT scan slices in the horizontal plane of the head of Struthio camelus (OUVC 10491). The head was scanned at O'Bleness Memorial Hospital on a GE LightSpeed Ultra Multislice CT scanner. Rendered using Amira and QuickTime by Ryan Ridgely. This movie derives from the 2008 Witmer & Ridgely article in the Anatomical Record..
• Download a 4.0 MB QuickTime version (950x462)

 

This website provides supplementary information as an adjunct to published paper. Witmer, with the skilled assistance of Ryan Ridgely, is responsible for the content of the website. Content provided here is for educational and research purposes only, and may not be used for any commercial purpose without the permission of L. M. Witmer and other relevant parties.

This project was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation.

  Ohio University
Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
Irvine Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701
740-593-2530 740-597-2778 fax
 

Last updated: 10/02/2014