Lawrence M. Witmer, PhD
Professor of Anatomy
Chang Professor of Paleontology

Dept. of Biomedical Sciences
Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
Life Science Building, Rm 123
Ohio University
Athens, Ohio 45701 USA

Phone: 740 593 9489
Fax: 740 593 2400
Email: witmerL@ohio.edu

 

Projects

3D Visualization

Pick-and-Scalpel Blog

WitmerLab Facebook

WitmerLab YouTube

People

Facilities

Collections

Prospective Students

 

WitmerLab Home

L. M. Witmer Home

OUµCT

Biomedical Sciences Home

OU-HCOM Home

Ohio University Home

 

Common Language Summary
The Visible Interactive Rhino.
This page presents our work on the 3D anatomical structure of the head and skull of white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum. These resources are outgrowths of our work with the Kariega Game Reserve in South Africa. In March 2012, following the brutal attack of three rhinos by poachers seeking horn, Dr. William Fowlds, the wildlife veterinarian treating the rhinos, contacted WitmerLab for insight into the anatomical structure of the horn, skull, and nasal cavity of rhinos. The poachers had used machetes to hack off the horns, leaving deep wounds in the face and exposing the delicate mucous membranes of the paranasal air sinuses and nasal cavity. WitmerLab provided Dr. Fowlds with the anatomical information he requested, as well as generated imagery that could be used in a more public context to help highlight the extent of the injuries inflicted on rhinos by the poachers. This web site seeks to share some of that imagery, as well as to provide basic anatomical information that can serve as STEM educational aids for K–12 and undergraduate students, as well as for researchers. Our primary specimen is the head of a 41-year-old male white rhino (named Kehtla) which was provided to WitmerLab by the Phoenix Zoo in 2002. This specimen (OUVC 9754) contributed to a published study on rhino horn published by WitmerLab in 2006, the same study that drew the attention of Dr. Fowlds. Kehtla's head was first CT scanned with the help of Heather Rockhold, RT(CT), at O'Bleness Memorial Hospital in 2008 and then again in March 2012 so as to get better data to help the Kariega rhinos. Chief WitmerLab Research Associate Ryan Ridgely assembled the several sets of CT scan data into a single 3D volume which is the basis for the work here.
 

Check out our other Visible Interactive Anatomy sites! 

• • • Download the CT data of our rhino (Kehtla: OUVC 9754) in DICOM format: 373 MB zip file which expands to 1.1 GB • • •
In 2006, we published an article on rhino horn structure. Check out that page. CT scanning the head of Kehtla at O'Bleness Memorial Hospital, Athens, Ohio The rhino head was so large, it had to be CT scanned in sections. Check out how we assembled the digital data.
3D PDFs
Videos
3D PDFs allow anyone with even the free Acrobat Reader to interactively manipulate the 3D models that we generate with powerful software like Avizo. The head, skull, horns, and soft tissues can be spun around, isolated, made transparent, hidden, etc. The files can even be saved to your local computer. We provide each 3D PDF in different resolutions and files sizes to match your interest and the power of your computer. View our mini-tutorial.
NOTE: Bugs in many popular browsers prevent running 3D PDFs in a browser window, so you may need to save it to your system and then launch it in Reader or Acrobat.
 

NORMAL: 3D PDF of the head of a normal, intact 41-year-old male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, OUVC 9754) with the skin, horns, skull, brain, eyeballs, nasal cavity, and paranasal air sinuses as separate objects.
• Download a 52 MB 3D PDF LARGEST
• Download a 30 MB 3D PDF LARGE
• Download a 16 MB 3D PDF MEDIUM
• Download a 5.3 MB 3D PDF SMALL
 

POACHED: 3D PDF of the head of a 41-year-old male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, OUVC 9754), replicating the effects of horn poaching, with the skin, horns, skull, brain, eyeballs, nasal cavity, and paranasal air sinuses as separate objects.
• Download a 36 MB 3D PDF LARGEST
• Download a 17 MB 3D PDF LARGE
• Download a 9.5 MB 3D PDF MEDIUM
• Download a 5.0 MB 3D PDF SMALL
 

 

Videos from elsewhere

 

AMNH Science Bulletin. Video characterizing WitmerLab's role in the wake of the Kariega poaching incident, put together by Mindy Weisberger and her Science Bulletin team at the American Museum of Natural History.
 

 

Athens Messenger. Video characterizing the partnership of O'Bleness Memorial Hospital and WitmerLab in scanning Kehtla to help the veterinary teams working at Kariega. The video was put together by Athens Messenger reporter Sara Brumfield. Check out Sara Brumfield's article in the Athens Messenger.
 
Labeled animation of normal intact head. Animation of aspects of the head anatomy of a 41-year-old male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, OUVC 9754). This animation was assembled in Avizo from four separate scan datasets by Ryan Ridgely and rendered in Adobe Premiere.
• Download a 39 MB QuickTime version (HD: 1920x1080)
• Download a 21 MB QuickTime version (1280x720)
• Download an 11 MB QuickTime version (800x450)
• Download an 8.2 MB QuickTime version (640x360)
 
 

CT slice animation. Animation of CT slices through the head of a 41-year-old male white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum, OUVC 9754). This animation was assembled in Avizo from four separate scan datasets by Ryan Ridgely.
• Download a 61 MB QuickTime version (1598x1028)
• Download a 32 MB QuickTime version (1119x720)
• Download an 18 MB QuickTime version (699x450)
• Download an 11 MB QuickTime version (480x309)

 
 

Video depicting the anatomical impact of horn poaching. This video replicates the injuries sustained by Themba and Thandi, two of the Kariega rhinos attacked by poachers, using our 3D visualizations of Kehtla as a model.
• Download a 167 MB QuickTime version (HD: 1920x1080)
• Download a 113 MB QuickTime version (1280x720)
• Download a 78 MB QuickTime version (800x450)
• Download a 37 MB QuickTime version (640x360)

 

Support the conservation of rhinos

 

 
 
 

This website provides supplementary information as an adjunct to the published paper. Witmer, with the skilled assistance of Ryan Ridgely, is responsible for the content of the website. Content provided here is for educational and research purposes only, and may not be used for any commercial purpose without the permission of L. M. Witmer and other relevant parties.

This project was funded by grants from the National Science Foundation.

  Ohio University
Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
Irvine Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701
740-593-2530 740-597-2778 fax
 

Last updated: 01/30/2014